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New chronology of Fomenko-Nosovskiy

 
New Chronology at Interfax, 17.03.2005
New Chronology at Interfax, 17.03.2005

New chronology of Fomenko-Nosovskiy - scientific theory created by Moscow mathematicians Fomenko and Nosovskiĭ GV , based on studies of numerical and qualitative characteristics of the historical narrative messages and astronomical nature. This theory is based on mathematical methods and has two main results:

1- to the conclusion of the fundamental fallacy of the traditional chronology

2- construct an alternative reconstruction of world history and chronology

A number of mainly humanities academics , without giving honest evidence and deliberately evading the scientific debate, has announced a mathematical theory of Fomenko and Nosovskiypseudoscience , recognizing the scientific status only for traditional chronology established philologist Joseph Scaliger and theologian Denis Pétau in the early XVII century.

"Who in such thinking does not want to go deep, content with the reading of the Holy Scriptures and other books edifying, Rid your life according to their teaching, for blessings received from God; others leave it the same way alone. " MV Lomonosov

Table Of Contents

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1 History of the New Chronology
  1.1 NA Morozov and his chronological works
  1.2 The revival of interest in global history
  1.3 Research AT Fomenko
  1.4 Novohronologicheskie battles
2 Summary of the New Chronology
3 Arguments New Chronology
  3.1 Methods of New Chronology
  3.2 Statistical analysis of texts
  3.3 Astronomical dating
  3.4 Continuity of accumulation of scientific knowledge
  3.5 A New History of Religions
  3.6 Criticism of traditional dating methods
4 Novohronologicheskaya reconstruction of world history
5 Verification of the New Chronology
6 The arguments of critics of New Chronology
7 News
8 See. also
9 Bibliography
10 Links

The history of the New Chronology

In the correct historical chronology doubted since the mid of the XVI century, even during its creation. For example, the French scientist J. Boden criticized astrological events dating method, applied by his contemporaries - YU.TS. Scaliger andGeorge. Cardano ; Professor of the University of Salamanca de Arsilla at the same time asserted that all ancient history invented by medieval monks. In XVII-XVIII centuries criticized the conventional chronology were I. Newton , J. Garduen ( in 1646 - 1,729 ) and PN Krekshino . At the end of the XIX century Assistant Professor, University of Basel , Robert Baldauf challenged the traditional chronology in his work "History and criticism" , the first volume of which was published in 1903 year.Similar ideas were expressed Edwin Johnson .

NA Morozov and his chronological works

NA  Morozov, 1922
NA Morozov, 1922

Foundation "New Chronology" was laid NA Morozov - Russian scientists first half of the twentieth century. It was he who wrote the work , to rethink the chronology of ancient history up to the XIII century and precipitated the further research in this direction. NA Morozov first scientist employed in historical science of natural scientific methods of research. Initially working Morozov were met with interest. The term"New Chronology" was born in 1925 , the in his discussion with historian NM Nikolsky . Some Western historians, for example, Immanuel Velikovsky , used ideas Morozova to substantiate the theory of "catastrophism", which partly explains the facts indicated Morozov , but stick to the medieval concept of cycling and a "change of realms" . Since the mid-1930s backstage hassle of traditional historiansinterested in historical works NA Morozov was repaid.

The revival of interest in global history

In the mid-1960s mathematician MM Postnikov tried to discuss ideas chronological NA Morozova , professional historians, but the success of this enterprise is not reached. Historians, which were accessed byMM Postnikov , do not take the natural scientific methods as a means of useful historical science.

In the early 1970s, became interested in the problems of chronology employee Suggestion MSU Anatoly Fomenko . Catching problems of celestial mechanics, he analyzed a strange phenomenon in the motion of the moon, described the American astrophysicist Robert Newton . R. Newton regained movement of the Moon in the past according to the information about the ancient solar and lunar eclipses, and found that this movement is not consistent with current astronomical models. On this basis, R. Newton suggested the influence of hitherto unknown astronomical factors. After examining the results of R.Newton , AT Fomenko suggested that the cause of unexplained results is erroneous dating of ancient eclipses.

Professor Postnikov , interested in the question of chronology in the 60s, said Fomenko on the works NA Morozov , who also points to the wrong dating of historical events. The problem of dating seemed interesting, and AT Fomenko , together with his colleague AS Mishchenko special seminar organized in chronological order in which the results of Morozova undergone major revision. Fomenko agreedMorozov that traditional chronology is wrong, but broke with him in the assessment of how far it is wrong. MM Postnikov , in turn, questioned this radical revision Morozov theory, and also finds it impossible to reconstruct the correct chronology without the help of professional historians.

AT research Fomenko

By the beginning of 1980 -s around AT Fomenko began to gather mathematicians, historians, physicists who are interested chronological problems. Initially, it was a new dating methods of historical events and improving methods Morozova . Then a number of new statistical methods, allows you to restore the correct chronology based on formal analysis of written sources. Over 1980 years -e AT Fomenko and his colleagues have published about twenty articles in scientific academic journals, including the historical. The results were presented at conferences and seminars and became quite well known among specialists.

In 1990 and 1993 came two years chronological monograph AT Fomenko (in the appendix to the second Nosovskiĭ GV dated Orthodox Paschal and the Council of Nicaea), then still no mention of the term "New Chronology" . In 1993 - 94 years in scientific publishing USA and Holland released three books Fomenko in chronological order and its new methods, the total volume of about 1000 pages.

And only after that, in 1995 , the Nosovskiĭ GV and Fomenko print publishing MSU first book on "New Chronology" : two volumes of "New Chronology of Russia, England and Rome" . In the next 1996 year there comes a two-volume "New Chronology of Greece" , and - publishing "Factorial" , - the first well-illustrated book - "Empire" . Starting from 1995 , the books on the New Chronology released regularly. K now the total number of major publications on the New Chronology of more than a hundred volumes.

Novohronologicheskie battles

After the release of "NH Russia, England and Rome" theory of AT Fomenko has become well known and, at the same time - notoriety among the reactionaries. Professional historians at first did not notice the new chronology , and then arrange it obstruction. In mass and historical editions of these circles followed the stream of hysterical rantings. December 21, 1999 , the in I Humanities Building of Moscow State University was organized conference "Myths" New Chronology "" dedicated to the condemnation novohronologicheskoy theory. After the infamous antinovohronologicheskogo solutions Presidium of RAS in 2000 , the opponents of the New Chronology of historians began to pretend that this theory has never existed. They adopted an unofficial ban on references to historical problems in controlled magazines.

Political spectrum ideological opponents New Chronology wide: from liberal VI Novodvorskaia ( answers on the forum Democratic Union ) to the patriot VV Kozhinova ( A few words about the "New Chronology of Russia" in the "History of Russia and the Russian word") and figures of fascist RNE ( [1] ).

On the other hand support the New Chronology publicly expressed chess GK Kasparov (see. article about his performance in SPbGUP), logician, philosopher and sociologist AA Zinoviev (foreword «A Global Falsification of History» the bookFomenko "History: Fiction or Science?" ), writer and political activist EV Lemons ( "Other Russia" ).

In Russia, there were several "novohronologicheskih" groups , which eventually redistributed to the circles of historical interest. Among them continue to exist "Chronotron" , "Empire" K. Hatches , "Secret history" , fragments of the "Project Civilization" Kesler - Ivanov , novohronologicheskie forums I. Koloskova , Association "Art & Fact" and others. Research on alternative history and engaged in other parts of the world: Jordan Tabov (Bulgaria), Eugene Gabovich (Germany), Uwe Topper (Germany), Livraga Rizzi , Rados Bakic , Hans-Ulrich Nimitz , Gunnar Heinsohn and many others. Their findings are sometimes contradictory conclusions and New Chronology .

The main provisions of the New Chronology

According to the New Chronology, China - a young state
According to the New Chronology, China - a young state

1- The traditional chronology of scams. In addition to bona fide error of historians, traditional historical chronology is wrong due to a deliberate distortion of history that was commissioned by various religious or political forces. In such fraud systematically fabricated allegedly ancient documents, and destroyed or corrected sources that contain unwanted information. Many of these were mass falsifications, consistent and well-organized, they were held simultaneously in the most developed countries in Europe and then spread around the world.

2- Actual events of world history presented in textbooks with numerous repetitions. Sources telling about the same events from different points of view of traditional historians often taken for posts about various events, dating to different time and referred to various georaficheskim regions. As a result of this activity in their world historical versions formed "duplicate" and "Phantom of reflection" real historical periods. Putting "duplicates" in a distant past compared to the "original" has led to an artificial lengthening of the history of mankind and to the appearance of her many"dark ages" and "rebirth" . B system of issuing astrological method for constructing this scale. New Chronology states that all historical events attributable to the traditional history of the period before the XI century, as well as a substantial part of the events referred to the XI-XV centuries, are duplicates of European events XI-XVII centuries AD.

3- Traditional historical chronology of antiquity in principle is wrong. It is caused by the inaccuracy of the two main reasons: incorrect dating of written sources and unsatisfactory methods creators chronological scale. Causes of Errors traditional chronology numerous - because global chronology established only at the end of the XV century, and before that chroniclers used only relative chronology. As a result, almost all the old written sources in the traditional stories are dated incorrectly. The history of mankind becomes valid only from the XVIII century AD. Since that time, preserved direct historical evidence sufficiently complete and detailed restoration for many stories. Significantly less reliable history of XI-XVII centuries; written sources of this period small numbers and need careful study of authenticity and content are subject to various interpretations. On the history of mankind before the XI century we can speak only conditionally, since no written evidence before the XI century does not exist, and archaeological findings can not yet be accurately dated and interpreted. Writing emerged and reached any significant spread long before the invention of printing, so the older written sources can not exist.

4- Non-European civilizations are much younger than the traditional chronology claims. Chronicles countries distant from the center of Christian civilization ( Ancient Japan , Ancient China , Ancient India ), do not apply to them, and regurgitate distorted historical writings that got there by European missionaries in the XVI-XVII centuries. Own the same story of these states is several hundreds of years.

Arguments New Chronology

To date, the materials on the New Chronology are tens of thousands of pages, filling hundreds of volumes. The most prolific authors in this topic - NA Morozov , AT Fomenko , Nosovskiĭ GV . New Chronology of their work has become an integral scientific theory , with its methods, developments and findings differ significantly from the product of traditional historians .

Methods New Chronology

Methods HX is a logical development of ideas NA Morozov and are as follows:

AT  Fomenko

1- mathematical-statistical method of local maxima of the function of volumes of historical texts to determine their dependence;

2- mathematical and statistical change-point detection method for finding homogeneous fragments of historical chronicles;

3- mathematical-statistical method copyright invariants for attribution, specifying the method of NA Morozov ;

4- mathematical-statistical method for recognition and dating of dynasties and rulers duplicate detection , advanced statistical method NA Morozov ;

5- mathematical-statistical method profiles codes for the detection of duplicates;

6- Analytical method for ordering and dating of maps ;

7- Astronomical dating method is unbiased , which develops and refines the astronomical method NA Morozov ;

Application of these methods has revealed a complete system of chronological shifts in TX . Particularly impressive results were obtained in relation to the Bible, "ancient" -Egipetskoy, Roman and Russian history.

Statistical analysis of texts

As mentioned above, mathematical and statistical methods of research of historical texts were laid by NA Morozov in the early twentieth century, but in the writings of AT Fomenko and GV Nosovskiy they acquired logical completeness and relative completeness. Keep in mind that during the time when he lived NA Morozov , did not exist tools for large computations needed to solve historical problems of statistical means, but she statistical science is in its infancy, and therefore the results of NA Morozov had a rather tentative, pointing to the possible directions of research. With the advent of computers and the deepening of mathematical statistics, as a science, these ideas could be implemented in practice.Statistical results of AT Fomenko underlying the New Chronology, published in academic journals and books, presented at international, all-Union and Russian mathematical conferences at scientific seminars at the Mathematical Institute. Steklov .Their essence is as follows:

AT  Fomenko

1- New Chronology conclusions based on statistical methods for comparison of narrative texts (t. e. - narrative texts) that describe long periods of history. These methods have nothing to do with the search for a match between the individual texts and biographies "by eye", according to critics of the HX series humanists who do not understand the principles of statistical science, and are based on formal statistical processing of the extracted numerical data one way or another from the written text. Constructed methods allow a high degree of confidence to determine whether the duplicate description of the sequence of events in a text description of the events set out in the other. Furthermore, they allow studying the problem of the homogeneity of the text of his authorship.

2- Characters historical works traditionally assigned to different times, may be a reflection of each other. Statistical methods HX allow you to compare texts written in different languages, as well as texts in which the names of the characters do not match, and discover their relationship. The method works and if texts have errors and omissions. This theory has withstood the test on historical data, the accuracy of which is beyond doubt.

3- Statistical methods argue that all supposedly ancient texts actually regurgitate the annals of the New Age. For example, the books of the Old Testament describes events XIV-XVII centuries., and chronicles the Chinese are translated into local languages of the European chronicles.

4- All modern "history book", made up of multiple instances of the same columns. To get Scaliger history, we must take real historical events XIV-XVII centuries BC and move them into the past at 337, 715, 1053 and 1800 years, and then later combined into the overall continuous narrative.

Astronomical dating

1- Analysis of astronomical data is used as an independent method of dating artifacts. Images and descriptions of the night sky are often found on ancient objects and books, which allows them to date with a certain accuracy. Novohronologov unbiased calculations show that the historical constellation is not as old as previously thought. Historically, the first study was novohronologicheskoe " Apocalypse " , attributed to John the Theologian . NA Morozov during Shlisselbourg conclusion discovered that the text of the New Testament book contains medieval astrological description of the night sky. After his release, he published his discovery in the book "Revelation in the storm and thunder" 1907 years, and then developed his arguments in the first volume of "Christ. Celestial milestones earthly history of mankind " . Analysis of the position of the planets of the horoscope of the Apocalypse gave only four temporary solutions, none of which did not confirm the traditional historical version of this writing: 395 , 632 , 1249 and 1486 years BC Calculations NA Morozova checked AT Fomenko in the first volume of the book "New Chronology of Greece. Antiquity to the Middle Ages " in 1996year. And found that quite satisfactory are three solutions: 395 , 1249 and 1486 years BC

2- Equally important are the study of numerous "ancient" -egipetskih sign. This work was also initiated NA Morozov , and continued AT Fomenko and GV Nosovskaya in the book "New Chronology of Egypt" in 2002 , and in subsequent books on the subject. It turned out that all Egyptian zodiacs are not older than one thousand years. Examples of dating ancient Egyptian zodiacs on NH:

1. Long Dendera Zodiac : 22-26 April 1168 AD
2. Round Dendera Zodiac : March 20, 1185 AD
3. The upper Atribsky Zodiac : 15-16 May 1230 AD
4. Lower Atribsky Zodiac : 9-10 February 1268 AD
5. Zodiac of a large temple in Esna : March 31 - April 3, 1394 BC
6. Zodiac from a small temple on the northern outskirts Esny : 6-8 May 1404 AD
7. Fivsky color Zodiac from the Egyptian "Valley of the Kings" and reproduced in Napoleon's Egyptian Album: 5-8 September 1182 AD
8. Fivsky Zodiac Brugsch contains just three horoscope, each of which gives a modern date:

a- Horoscope "without staves" : 6-7 October 1841 BC

b- Horoscope "boat" : February 15, 1853 BC

c- Horoscope demotic additions : November 18, 1861 BC

9. Couple Zodiacs Petosirisa because of poverty astronomical information has three possible solutions to the difference between the dates of not more than 100 years:

August 5, 1227 AD - For Zodiac from the outside of the room, 24-25 March 1240 AD - To sign the inside of the room.

August 10, 1430 BC - External, April 17, 1477 BC - To sign the internal.

August 2, 1667 AD - External, April 2, 1714 AD - For internal.

Similar results are obtained and the analysis of texts describing astronomical phenomena: eclipses, flares stars, describing the relationship of the stars and planets.

1- An important source of astronomical data is ancient star catalog "Almagest" - a set of scientific, attributed to Ptolemy . It consists of two parts - theoretical (statement of alleged "Ptolemaic system") and observation (catalog more than a thousand stars). According to traditional historians , Ptolemy created the "Almagest" about the II. BC, but NA Morozov argued that the directory was created at the end of the XV century. BC According to calculations Kalashnikov VV , Fomenko and GV Nosovskiy , coordinate measuring star catalog were made in the range from 600 to 1300 AD (Small precision directory does not allow to establish confidence that date). The theoretical part of the catalog was corrected in postkopernikovskoe time in the middle of the XVII century. and presents no "Ptolemaic system" and "system of Tycho Brahe," as agreed with the astronomical reality, and with Catholic doctrines (this work was done by Jesuit J.-B. Riccioli in 1651 was).

2- More NA Morozov said that the dating of ancient eclipses traditional historians allowed significant adjustment to the desired result to confirm the dates of approved theologians used insufficiently described eclipse (without indicating the date, time and place of observation, the phase of the eclipse), because of what astronomically possible variants of such eclipses can be found in almost every century.Novohronologi rechecked reports of those ancient eclipses, which are described in detail, and have received much later date than previously thought. For example, three of the eclipse of the "History" Thucydides , Peloponnesian War, dated XI-XII centuries. BC instead of V century BC, it was thought to Scaliger chronology and two eclipses of the "History" Livy dated X century AD, instead of the traditionally accepted the II century BC

3- Despite the abundance of discrepancies between astronomical and traditional dating, astronomical information contained in the chronicles, often approximately corresponds Scaliger chronology. This is explained later (relating to the XVII century., And sometimes the twentieth century.) Edited by "ancient" sources at their critical re-release, and adjusting the astronomical indications for already enshrined in Scaliger chronology date.

Continuous accumulation of scientific knowledge

In traditional stories described a chaotic process of accumulation of scientific knowledge: first, in ancient times, science and culture reached a high level; then, during the "Dark Ages" this knowledge was almost completely forgotten; however, in the era of the Renaissance scientific knowledge of antiquity, its history, language and literature were recovered from oblivion with astonishing rapidity and completeness. Science has returned to the "classical" Latin forgotten medieval scholastics, architecture and painting - to the "imitation of antiquity," and so on. It is assumed that the keepers and scribes of ancient pagan works for a thousand years of neglect were Christian monks, Jewish and Islamic nachёtniki, despite the fact that the orgiastic culture of polytheism was unacceptable to them because of religious prohibitions. This picture of the development of civilization in the New Chronology considered impossible.

1- World degradation of science, culture and technology, which is attributed to the Scaliger version of the story the early medieval period, it may be possible only in the case of the grand cataclysm, after which mankind would cease to exist. Since traces of such disasters is not observed, the "Dark Ages" of traditional stories are fictional, but in reality the Middle Ages - is the initial period of the earth's civilization, "antique" works were created in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Medieval works, which are considered an imitation of "ancient models" were created before the expected patterns. Works created for two or three centuries before the era of Scaliger, were incorrectly attributed to the much more distant past, and the uncertainty in the early Middle Ages explained their "loss" for a thousand years.

2- Credible experience in the development of science shows that the maintenance of scientific knowledge is possible only if the preservation of scientific schools and traditions, which promotes the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation. Proceedings as containing "lost" scientific knowledge, usually perceived only when science opens them again, and the newly discovered knowledge can not replace the existing system of knowledge, and embedded in it. According to the traditional chronology, scientific school in the Middle Ages did not exist, and if so, it is impossible to imagine that knowledge has been restored as a result of reading ancient texts, the language which was already clear.

3- Ancient writings could not remain intact for thousands of years without being claimed by mankind - this test of time can not stand those fragile media, which is located mankind antiquity. Currently, very little is known of original documents of all five hundred years ago, but the millennial works can not speak, they are known only in later copies, the originals of which compliance check is no longer possible - and this at a much more favorable conditions for their preservation as compared with the Middle Ages.

4- Human civilization makes monotonous evolution towards accelerated accumulation of general cultural baggage, developing and becoming more complex over time. This hypothesis of "continuous succession of human culture" was first formulated and proved NA Morozov , and it is supported by the observation of fairly well-known periods of history (from the XV century AD.). It is this picture is the reconstruction of the history of the world, built on the basis of the New Chronology.

A New History of Religions

New Chronology draws different compared to traditional picture of the world's religions. It gives other sacred events dating and relationships between the various cults.

AT  Fomenko
AT Fomenko "Golgotha"

In the traditional history is believed that Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, ancient paganism appeared long before Christianity and evolved relatively independently of each other, and later Christianity borrowed from them some of the myths and rituals. This opinion is based on the considerable similarity cults and Scaliger chronology of their origin.

New Chronology offers another explanation for the similarity of religions historically the first world religion was doiisusovskoe Christianity (in the terminology of NA Morozov - "aaronstvo"), later (approximately in XII-XIII century AD.) Species generic and apostolic Christian orthodoxy and as a negative reaction to it - modern Judaism. Struggle with Orthodoxy "Empire" has led to the design of Catholicism and Protestantism and various sects of Islam and Christian missionary activity on the borders of the ecumene - the appearance of Hinduism, Buddhism, vuduizma, as a synthesis of Christianity with shamanic cults of local social conditions.

Without prejudice to the dogmatic questions of religious teachings and not denying their sacred foundations, New Chronology subjected to scientific questioning religious legends and traditions that for every religion phenomenon is more painful than even doubt dogmas. After jeopardized the possibility of preserving the memory of the time sacred events, and even if it turned out to be unenforceable, - that certainty with which preserved the memory of their content? Realizing all this, the leaders of all faiths pointedly not notice the existence of the New Chronology and its conclusions, but unofficially betray her conviction. Such tacit condemnation already followed by the functionaries of the Moscow Patriarchate and Judaism. In this context, is not a valid assertion that New Chronology does not dispute any of the religions can coexist with them in a single ideological connection. It should be noted that the contradiction between the new chronology and any religion - it is a special case of antagonism between the rational and scientific outlook and irrational, dogmatic.

Criticism of traditional dating methods

Novohronologi not recognize the impartiality, credibility and scientific integrity of physical dating methods used by traditional historians to justify the designs laid down long before any attempt to use natural-scientific methods:

1- Content and criticism of traditional dendrochronological methods

2- Content and criticism of radiocarbon dating method

Joseph Scaliger, founder rejects the traditional chronology
Joseph Scaliger , founder rejected bytraditional chronology

They also object to the view that Scaliger chrono-scale has documented historical evidence, for the following reasons:

1- The traditional chronology was generally formed in the XVII century I. Scaliger , S. Kalviziem , D. Petavius and their epigones then using conventional astrological and numerological methods, and since then has not been a serious test

2- In a global chronological scale historians XVII. did not take into account data from business documents, which could test their assumptions

3- Adopted in the history and archeology artifacts dating methods (eg palaeography ) can not be used for independent verification traditional chronology , as compared to newly discovered specimens with those previously dated by ill-founded reasons. And so the vicious circle of reasoning, in which the criterion of the correctness of the traditional chronology are her own personal assumptions. At the same time supporting the dating methods are used selectively and tendentiously

4- Many supposedly ancient monuments of literature and material culture created in recent times for political or religious order, or for sale to collectors of antiquities, or modified in accordance with traditional views. The criterion of authenticity is that their common historical pattern. "Ancient" historical sources can not withstand a serious test, yet historians continue to trust them according to accepted tradition among them, ignoring any evidence to the contrary

Novohronologicheskaya reconstruction of world history

On the basis of the New Chronology built a completely different version of world history, the history of which differ significantly from the traditional . The first attempts to "reconstruction" - that is, restore the correct history, there have been NA Morozov in his multi-volume "Christ" . But he dared to revise history only to the IV. BC, and for a more radical revision of historical representations ("apperceptions" in the terminology of NA Morozov ) at that time lacked scientific basis. Fomenko and GV Nosovskii already armed for to make the revision history of the world up to the XV century. inclusive.

AT  Fomenko

Novohronologicheskaya history of the world - is a rich version of historical events, which lacks many "dark ages" and the revival version I. Scaliger . Many well-known events in the New Chronology have a different meaning and sense. "Ancient" scientists, writers, historical figures really lived, but at the wrong time and in the wrong place, as previously thought. Many of them are known by different names, these different names in traditional history and attributed to different acts. For example, Ivan Kalita and is known under the name Batu ; Marshal Gilles de Rais - as the biblical Samson , Jesus Christ - the Egyptian god Osiris , the conqueror of Joshua , the biblical King David , a teacher of the Church of St. Father Basil the Great , the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate , Pope Gregory VII Hildebrand , Byzantine EmperorAndronikos I Komnenos . Classical scholars, writers, who have traditionally been considered separated by a plurality of centuries, in fact, were contemporaries - so early Christian theologians argue not with the followers of the ancient philosophers long dead, and with these philosophers, known under other names.

New Chronology agree with the history of ancient traditions, for example, that Russia was baptized the Apostle Andrew , the presence in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs Christian symbols, and thus it becomes clear origin and true meaning of many myths. Is explained and the important for humanity fact that the New Time accelerate the development of civilization , while in ancient times, supposedly, the level of development of science and technology has remained unchanged for thousands of years, and then decreased. According to the New Chronology and Morozovsk principle of "continuous succession of human culture" , the development of human society on a global scale comes with the acceleration and accumulation of civilizational baggage.

Verification of the New Chronology

Novohronologi believe that this theory even in the present, Incomplete his condition is applicable to the study of historical trends. You can use it to forecast the social and historical processes. This way you can try to anticipate historical perspective.Some of them have already followed from Morozov's "principle of continuous succession of human culture" that rejects chiliastic projections opponents technical progress. Follow from the theory of HX and geopolitical encouraging findings with regard to Russia and the countries of the "third world."

Arguments of the critics of New Chronology

"The fools at a time when challenged one of their stupidity, put forward another, even more." ( Galileo , writing against obscurantism )

Like every revolutionary scientific theory, New Chronology caused by the separation of the scientific community. It was condemned by some well-known scientists, for example - Academicians RAS historians VL Janina and AA Fursenko , philologistAA Zaliznyak , physicist, Nobel laureate VL Ginsburg , Chairman of the Commission to Combat Pseudoscience EP Kruglyakova , Bureau member of the Scientific Council of Russian Academy of Sciences Astronomy YN Yefremov and others. This group controls a number of Internet portals and advises some of the newspaper, radio station, television station, through which carries the opinion of the "pseudo-scientific" New Chronology. Magazine Herald of the RAS unilaterally discusses many years Academician AT Fomenko , only twice giving him an opportunity to respond ( 2000 , № 9, and in 2002 , № 2 - in the same issue on p.  146 of the editorial board of the magazine declared "final refutation of the New Chronology"). In order to make this community to adopt a new chronology as an alternative scientific hypothesis novohronologam have to provide a pleasant interpretation of relying on the traditional chronology of judgments, as well as explain the contradiction with the New Chronology is widely accepted concepts in the areas of science, which is based on the traditional chronology . Of course - this synthesis New Chronology chronology of the Old and never will be, and therefore ideological reconciliation of these branches of modern science is impossible. The content of the objections to the New Chronology is as follows:

AT  Fomenko
AT Fomenko "Dogma"

1- States that in order to explain "minor" facts (anachronisms in the chronicles and astronomical messages) New Chronology discards conventional humanitarian theory (the historical process of development of languages, cultural evolution). In their opinion, the New Chronology are no acceptable explanation for the circle of critics of these contradictions, and thus they fail this theory by artificially created the concept of "junk science" (which in an environment of modern reactionaries used in the sense of the medieval word "heresy" ). Thus, this argument refers to the apparent contradiction of methods and findings with the New Chronology traditional chronology , which she criticizes. This philosophy among the opponents of the New Chronology philosophizing recognized their most significant and compelling, but in fact it has no logical force.

2- Critics seek and find the internal contradictions of the New Chronology, pointing to a discrepancy in the dating made by different methods or New Chronology comparing historical reports psevdolichnostyah ( phantoms ), and pointing to the difference in their descriptions.

3- Strong opposition to the Conservative cause found in the New Chronology conclusions about the deliberate falsification of historical communications in modern times. Despite the fact that the falsification of historical sources, in principle, is not incredible, the use of this thesis gives the large-scale features of the New Chronology "conspiracy theory", which is unacceptable for those who intentionally or unintentionally involved in this event: in their view, involve scientific novohronologi dishonesty of the great circle of conservative scholars.

4- Critics from among historians dissatisfied ignoring the traditional methodology of historical science. They argue that the combination of existing historical dating methods allow us to date historical events with very high accuracy and strongly disagree with the assertions novohronologov that reliable written records of human history before the IX century does not exist. In addition, they are not satisfied reconstruction of history that offers a new timeline. Opponents accuse novohronologov ignoring a number of historical sources that do not fit their hypothesis and alternative interpretations of the facts. However, such accusations are mutual. Religious historians are not happy with the fact that the reconstruction novohronologicheskoy earthly life of Jesus Christ is identified with the biography of other historical figures.

5- On novohronologicheskoe consideration about the absurdity of the millennial cultural decline during the Middle Ages and the equally groundless Renaissance historians note that the decline touched only of Fine Arts, and in connection with the opposition New Chronology they began to deny the very existence of the "Dark Ages" in the traditional history .

6- As a rebuttal New Chronology in respect of Russian history are presented birch bark , first found in Novgorod in 1951 year. Their texts allegedly serve as a good source of data validation dendrochronology, which, in turn, correspond to the traditional chronology of Russia.

7- Criticism from the philologists reduced to parody the New Chronology results in linguistics (largely arising from the work of NA Morozov ). Initiated these parodies is academician AA Zaliznyak .Critics linguists argue that philological arguments novohronologov unprofessional and wrong in principle because they do not correspond to the traditional theory of linguistics. In May 2007 , theAA Zaliznyak won AI Solzhenitsyn for a book in which the traditional philological methods justified antiquity "Lay." In his acceptance speech criticized the new chronology Laureate Fomenko and Nosovskiy .

8- Critics from among specialists in dendrochronology and radiocarbon analysis indicate that the comments in the works for the New Chronology reflect the state of their methods on 60-70 -th of the XX century, while in the last 40 years, both dating method allegedly made significant progress towards increase the accuracy and independence of dating objects.

9- The initiator of the astronomical New Chronology critics is astronomer-observer YN Efremov . In 1987 , he co-authored c ED Pavlovian published work "dating" Almagest "from the proper motions of stars" (DAN SSSR, 1987, t. 294, № 2, pp. 310-313), which criticized the work of the American astronomer R. Newton (Russian translation of his book "The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy" released by the publishing house "Science" in 1985 , with the announcement of this article). Their work, in turn, has been criticized by VV Kalashnikov , GV Nosovskaya and AT Fomenko in the article "The dating of the variables Almagest star configuration" (DAN SSSR, 1989, t. 307, № 4, p. 829-832) and since then YN Efremov , along with various co-authors constantly looking for astronomical error New Chronology. However, it all comes down to finding the applicability of the mathematical apparatus used group YN Ephraim . According to novohronologov, this device is too rude to date "Almagest" Ptolemy with the claimed accuracy. Some historians dispute astronomical findings NA Morozova , the refined in the New Chronology, trying to reinterpret the evidence of "ancient" sources.

10- The so-called "mathematical" critics of the new chronology set out to refute the scientific results of AT Fomenko and co-authors in the field of statistical analysis of historical texts. The authors of this criticism does not have mathematical education, and have never had a mathematical publications in scientific journals. Their critical work mathematically helpless and placed by the authors on private sites and antinovohronologicheskih non-academic books published antinovohronologicheskoy group, and has never been published in mathematical journals.

News

September 26-27, 2013 , the in the Belgorod State Technological University. VG Shukhov hosted a scientific-practical conference "New Chronology of Russian history and world history" ( fragment record, 3 hr. 47 min. )

See. Also

        The history of the New Chronology

        New chronology of Fomenko-Nosovskiy / Documents

        Morozov, Nikolai

        Postnikov Mikhail Mikhailovich

        Fomenko, Anatoly T.

        Kalashnikov, Vladimir V.

        Nosovskii, Gleb

        Tabs, Yordan Borisov

Bibliography

Bibliography New Chronology

Reference

Interview with Anatoly Fomenko about mathematics and the New Chronology , June 27 2013

Interview with Tatiana Nikolaevna Fomenko , June 27 2013

Official site of HX , administers Irina Koloskova

Collection of articles on NC

Old site HX and its supporters

Books AT Fomenko library Moshkova

Works NA Morozov and his followers on the site, "Empire" Cyril hatches

Analysis of the books "Antifomenko" and "History and antiistoriya '' - the answer GV Nosovskiy and AT Fomenko criticism NC

"The Art of calculating dates" A. Fomenko - AT Fomenko in the transmission of A. Martynov on Radio Mayak 25-09-2005 talks about the New Chronology copy of this interview is on the official website of HX Audio Online "Empire"

Record radio programs with the participation of GV Nosovskiy online "Empire"

Critical study of the history of the ancient world three volumes MM Postnikov

The ancient Bulgarians Site Bulgarian mathematician and historian J. Tabs «The Old Bulgarians».

Condemnation of HX in the report of the RAS 2000

What can be found in the tomb of Tutankhamun - an example of a critical article on botany Egypt, written PhD Pirogova MA

Kiwi Bird " Index coincidences " - the author tries to explain the absurdity traditional chronology

AA Zaliznyak "Linguistics at AT Fomenko " - a sample of philological criticism NC

"History and Chronology" - International interdisciplinary electronic journal on the historiography

"Revision history and anti-globalization" - Canadian interdisciplinary and international project

Resource Michael Hoffman

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